The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (2016) indicates that asset misappropriation is the most common form of occupational fraud. There are six other types of frauds such as collusion, commissions, fictitious sales, rebates, refunds, and write-offs. Asset misappropriation includes examples relating to theft of cash, misuse of inventory, and fraudulent reimbursement.

The most interesting part of this case was a financial innovation product called JS Saving Plan. It was a ‘bancassurance’ insurance product, with protection for five years, but with a one-year investment period. The product was distributed through eight Indonesian banks: Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Bank Tabungan Negara, KEB Hana Bank Indonesia, DBS Indonesia, ANZ Indonesia, QNB Indonesia, Standard Chartered and Bank Victoria International. JS Saving Plan was sold with the minimum amount of IDR 100 million (USD 6890, with an exchange rate of 1USD = Rp 15,000)

The scheme claim the investor would be paid on a yearly basis unless the customer requested an extension of the policy or rolled it over. After the claim was paid, the personal accident protection period would continue until the fifth year.

The company tried everything to survive, but it could not weather the economic conditions and turned around the direction of the stock price as an underlying foundation for its portfolio.